Last week, we saw that Scripture presents Adam as a representative of Israel insofar as the first human’s expulsion from Eden anticipates Israel’s exile. Adam is not the only figure, however, that the writers of Genesis pattern on the future experiences of Israel. Abram, too, foreshadows the future experience of Israel when he enters Egypt and comes back out again; in Abram, we find an early rendition of Israel’s exodus.

After Abram and his family come into Canaan, Scripture notes, “famine was in the land (ויהי רעב בארץ; va’yehi ra’av ba’aretz). Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there, for the famine was severe in the land (כי כבד הרעב בארץ; ki kaved hara’av ba’aretz)” (Gen 12:10). Just as Abram goes down into Egypt due to severe famine, the Israelites end up in Egypt because of famine: “The sons of Israel (בני ישׂראל; benei Yisrael) came to buy [food in Egypt]… for the famine was in the land (כי היה הרעב בארץ; ki haya hara’av b’eretz) of Canaan” (42:5). Indeed, these are the very “sons of Israel” (בני ישׂראל; benei Yisrael), says Exodus, “who came to Egypt with Jacob, each with his household” (Exod 1:1). In going down to Egypt because of famine, Abram’s journey points to that of Joseph’s brothers – the patriarchs of the twelve tribes of Israel.

When Abram tells Pharaoh that Sarai is his sister, and Pharaoh takes her into his house, “the Lord plagued (נגע; naga) Pharaoh and his house with great plagues (נגעים; negaim)” (Gen 12:17). This scenario is a clear precursor to when God later afflicts Pharaoh with plagues. Speaking of the slaying of the first born of Egypt, God tells Moses, “I will bring one more plague (נגע; nega) upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt; afterwards, he will send you out” (Exod 11:1). Just as the final plague got Pharaoh to “send out” (שׁלח; shalach) the Israelites in the exodus, Genesis records of Abram that the Pharaoh also “sent him away” (שׁלח; shalach) along with Sarai (Gen 12:20). All the way back in Genesis 12, the writer offers a foretaste of what will happen in Moses’ day; just as Adam anticipates Israel’s Exile, Abram anticipates the nation’s Exodus. Based on the similarities between these events in the lives of Abram and Israel, we can affirm the rabbis’ assertion that “whatever was written about Abraham was [also] written of his children [Israel]” (Genesis Rabbah 40:6).



    • Agreed, Dolores. In presenting Jesus as "repeating" these biblical figures, the Gospel writers plug into the repetition that already exists between Abram and Israel (and Adam and Israel). Thanks for your thoughts!
  1. Dr. Schaser; I recognize many types in the Old Testament. Could you help clarify something? Genesis closes with Jacob’s passing. Joseph is invested in the Egyptian culture. I’m missing the point at which the Israelites actually became enslaved. Where can I read about that? Thank you.
    • Hi, Alan. A good question. The truth is, we just don't know exactly when the Israelites were enslaved. Exodus says that it happened once a Pharaoh arose who "did not know Joseph" (Exod 1:8), so it was likely multiple generations after Joseph's death. Dating events around the Exodus narrative is a much debated enterprise. If you're interested in learning more about the historical and archaeological issues involved, but also learning about the evidence that supports the information we get in the Exodus narrative, see James Hoffmeier's book, "Israel in Egypt."
  2. I was thinking about this the other day as a friend ask3d me to give him some examples from the Apostolic writings and the gospels that clarify that the church has not replaced Israel. He said he thinks the bride of John's apocalypse and other writers is a "new" bride and therefore not Israel (unless of course they become disciples of Jesus and join the church). I noted in reading the story about Abrams sojourn in Egypt that it's his bride that is taken captive, and delivered through the agency of the plagues sent by God.
  3. Also noted that if the analogy fol.ows through, then the people of Israel are the bride and God the deliverer in the Exodus. Then also there are the prophets who cal Israel God's bride (and He promises faithfulness even though she has been unfaithful.
  4. Shalom I thought I would let you know that there are two of these with the same name but they are not saying the same thing. They written by you so I thought I would let you.
    • Hi Sandra, do you mean this one ("Abram as Israel") and the other one I wrote last week ("Adam as Israel")? This one's on Abram, the other one's on Adam.
  5. Why are GODs people driven to exile due to famine in their land? I understand GODs ways and thoughts are not as ours. Could it simply be right place, right time, right connection - ALL GODs intervention for whatever reason HE desires? Simply showing HIMSELF to other nations/people including HIS Chosen? Why famine, and so much hardship/struggle?
    • Hi, Vida. In the case of Genesis 12:10, the text doesn't say that God sent the famine; rather, all it says is: "there was a famine in the land." While God sometimes manipulates the weather in order to bring about a specific purpose (e.g., Jonah 1:4-17), this needn't always be so, and we don't have textual evidence that this was the case in Abram's case.
    • The story of Joseph will give you a pattern. I love the way Joseph dreams and his father is angered. But in Egypt Pharaoh dreams. Only Joseph can interpret. So the two are joined in understanding. many threads weave through this marvellous story relating to the gospel in our lives.
    • (not many women are re-named in Father's eternal living Word), it's important kings fight over you so every one knows. Isaac's mom had it all, but a son. Jewess glory, Father's style. Not only Father Abraham drew Hashem's favor. Eyes only, Pharaoh.


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