In Galatians, Paul chastises his Gentile audience for privileging certain dates on the calendar, saying, “You observe days and months and seasons and years! I am afraid I may have labored over you in vain” (Gal 4:10-11). Although some have seen Paul’s words as a warning against observing the biblical holidays, it is more likely that Paul refers to dates and times in Graeco-Roman religious year, rather than to the Jewish festival calendar.

In order to understand the calendric references in Gal 4:10, we must attend to Paul’s division between Jews and Gentiles earlier in Galatians 4. At the start of the chapter, Paul speaks about the Jewish nation of which he is a part, and recalls a time when “we [Jews]… were enslaved (δουλόω; doulóo) to the elementary principles of the world” (4:3). What Paul cannot mean by “elementary principles of the world” (στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου; stoicheia tou kósmou) is the “Torah commandments” or the observance of biblical feasts. The apostle cannot be equating such “principles” with the Torah because Paul never says that he and his fellow Jews were “enslaved” (δουλόω; doulóo) to the Torah. Rather, Paul says that “we [Jews] were protected (φρουρέω; phroureo) under the Law” (Gal 3:23). God never made slaves of Israel through the Torah; instead, the Lord introduced the Torah to “protect” the chosen people (cf. Phil 4:7 and 1 Pe 1:5 for φρουρέω as positive “protection”). Whatever the enslaving “elementary principles” are for Jews, they are certainly not the Torah commandments or the biblical holidays.

When it comes to Gentiles, however, Paul does use the language of enslavement: “When you [Gentiles] did not know God, you were enslaved (δουλόω; doulóo) to those that by nature are not gods. But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless elementary principles of the world, to whom you want to be enslaved (δουλεύω; douleúo) once more?” (Gal 4:8-9). First, Paul says that Gentiles were “enslaved” to their false gods (e.g., Zeus/Jupiter, Poseidon/Neptune, etc.), and then asks why they wish to be “enslaved” again to the “elementary principles.” It is in this context that Paul refers to “days and months and seasons and years” in the very next verse (4:10). For Paul, the observance of such dates and times are outward signs that the Galatians have turned back to slavery under the “elementary principles” of their former gods and goddesses. In highlighting days, months, seasons, and years, Paul cautions against his newly converted Gentiles returning to religious observances for the Graeco-Roman deities.



  1. Shalom. This is what I thought. Paul was not talking bout the Feast that God had told the Isralites and any visitors to keep but the days man himself had decided to celebrate.
  2. Excellent post! It does however raise some questions about observing non-biblical holidays. Those meant to replace moedim (Christmas and Easter) are obviously not to be observed. But things like Father's Day and Thanksgiving here in the US are often hotly debated grey areas. Any thoughts on these?
    • Thanks for your question, Daniel. On Christmas and Easter, the NT doesn't prohibit celebrating Jesus' birth and resurrection, and since they are both pivotal points in the life of the Messiah (and his followers), there's nothing wrong with observing these holidays. In fact, the NT records celebratory responses to Jesus' birth (e.g., Magi bringing gifts in Matt 2) and his resurrection (e.g., worshiping the risen Jesus in Matt 28:9; communing in joy and worship in Luke 24:52-53; sharing a meal in Jn 21), so the text offers templates for celebrating these events if one were so inclined. Secular American holidays are outside the Bible's purview, so there's no issue with celebrating these holidays either.

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  3. Jeremiah 10:2 KJV Thus saith the LORD, Learn not the way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at them .Both Christmas and Easter are not Christian Holy Day but ones Changed that were heathen to try to make Christian.
    • The NT holidays found in Christianity are pagan based and done so to convert the people of the times. The modern xmas has no relation to the birth of jc (around sept/oct) but it relates to the midwinter pagan festival which was a celebration of the turning point of winter
  4. I recently reread that scripture in Galatians about a week ago and realized it really wasn't talking about Jewish observances. Also, Paul seems to be condemning holidays and celebrations that glorify another deity and enslave people in false worship which violates the first commandment of worshipping HaShem God exclusively.
  5. The problem I HAD with repetition (i.e observance of Biblical feasts) is that it seemed temporary instead of eternal. There was no language to help me differentiate between falling away being enlightened (Heb 6).What helped is seeing repentance as a continual process.
    • The problem being the interpretation of the meaning "repentance". In the original Hebrew the word is "teshuva" correctly translated as " to return". To return to our original state of being. It is instantaneous. The festivals and holidays are appointed times as per Torah.
  6. Your assertion makes me glad. You just confirmed my assumtion, which I have found few months earlier. But it is important what you say, that the context may be not so wide as it seems to be, sometime. So author of the letter changed topic in it.
    • Thanks, Radim. You're right: context is everything, and we need to try to read the context as closely as possible if we are going to come away with the strongest interpretation.
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