The meanings of names in the Bible can provide us with insight into the fate or behavior of biblical figures. For instance, since Abel (הבל; hevel) means “vapor”—something that’s here one minute and gone the next—readers of Genesis 4 can intuit that he will not last long. Likewise, knowing the meaning of Jonah’s name offers a window into how he will behave as a reluctant prophet; or, more precisely, Jonah’s name highlights his underwhelming prophetic performance at the outset of his narrative.

The Hebrew name Jonah (יונה; yonah) means “dove.” Thus, when God tells the prophet to travel from Israel to Nineveh, the reader expects that Jonah will be a dove-like messenger to the people of Assyria—of course, this is not what happens: “The word of the Lord was to Jonah (יונה; yonah) son of Amittai, saying, ‘Get up, go to Nineveh’… but Jonah got up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord” (Jon 1:1-3). In light of the fact that the rest of Israel’s prophets do what they’re told when God gives a command, we can see that something is awry with Jonah from the word “go”!

Making Jonah’s refusal to go to Nineveh even more ironic, there is a well-known story of another dove prior to Jonah; namely, the dove that Noah sends out of the ark. When Noah sends a dove to scout the land after the flood, the bird embarks willfully and then returns dutifully with proof that the waters have subsided: “[Noah] sent forth the dove (יונה; yonah) out of the ark, and the dove came back to him in the evening, and behold, in its mouth was a freshly plucked olive leaf. And Noah knew that the waters had subsided from the land” (Gen 8:10-11).

For anyone familiar with the story of Noah’s ark, Jonah’s rejection of God’s command is doubly ironic: as a “dove,” Jonah should leave for Assyria just as Noah’s dove left from the ark! Unfortunately for Jonah, this first attempt to turn from God’s call will be the beginning of several blunders that the prophet will make. Thankfully, God will accomplish the divine goal and, in the end, Nineveh will repent at Jonah’s word.

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29 COMMENTS

  1. Jonah what was happened to him, this exactly what is happing to our today’s generation, by not carry the words of God

  2. There appears to be very little evidence, both external and Biblical, that I can see, to support the book of Jonah actually being historic.

  3. Further to my comment, it seems far more likely that the Book of Jonah is wisdom literature, and the emphasis on the Aesop’s Fable type of story is to drive home the point. God is a God of mercy and justice. We tend to focus on Jonah being swallowed by a whale/fish rather than the intended wisdom being highlighted.

    • Verse 1 of Jonah says he is the son of Amittai. Amittai is mentioned in 2 Kings 14.25. This is history. Jesus verifies Jonah. As Jesus was 3 days and nights in the belly of the earth, dead, perhaps Jonah too was dead in the fish’s belly. The message: resurrection.

  4. Interesting how we believe history over the Bible believing the Biblical events only where they can be matched with historical events, how do we choose?

  5. The Letter Chaf is the shape of a dove and the high priests hands when he anoints his son (in whom he is well pleased) to take over his high priestly role, so it similarly was with Yeshua when his Father’s “hands” in the shape of a Dove came anointing.

    • Thanks for your question, Laurence. Do you mean the Spirit that descends “like a dove” at Jesus’ baptism? Since the NT baptismal narratives don’t say that an actual “dove” descended on Jesus, but rather than the Spirit descended “like a dove” would descend, I don’t think we have a link between Noah’s dove and Jesus’ baptism.

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    • Thanks Dr. N. But deftinally there is a link between the dove at baptism and the hands of the high priest to annoint his son. I THINK?

      • Thanks, Pepler. I don’t see where/how the link is being made between these two events. First, a “dove” doesn’t appear at Jesus’ baptism; rather, the “Spirit” descends “*like* a dove.” If there’s no dove at the baptism, then we have no connection to anything else having to do with a dove elsewhere in the Bible. To Laurence’s points above, there is no Hebrew letter “Chaf” — there’s a “kaf,” but I don’t see how it’s shaped “like a dove”; here is it: כ. Finally, there’s no biblical instance of the high priest making his hands in the shape of a כ (let alone a “dove”) in an anointing ceremony.

  6. I might disagree, Laurence—since the ark was the vessel of salvation in the Flood & in NT Christ is compared to ark as our vessel of salvation thru baptism. Spirit in dove form represents appeasement of God’s wrath & sign of peace + Christ is Prince of Peace.

  7. Yeshua’s recognition of the validity of Jonah is enough proof for me. I really look for a “LIKE” button for some of these comments. Thank you, I learn a little more each day, even though I am getting old.

  8. Dr. Nicolas,
    I couldn’t catch the focal point of your article. What is the relation b/n the Noah’s Dove and Jonah apart from the meaning of the name?
    Thanks
    Mehari

    • The connection lies in a difference, rather than a similarity. Noah’s dove was immediately obedient multiple times (in leaving ark and finding dry land), but Jonah the “dove” was not obedient — therefore, Jonah’s name is ironic and highlights his role as a particularly reluctant prophet.

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  9. Shalom to you all, actually when we are called back to the restoration of the Kingdom language we will know the deeper meaning of Dove (which in Hebrew means ECHO the ECHO of the voice of YHWH to speak the words of our Creator and become an Embassader only

  10. Hi Dr Schaser
    Noah sent forth the dove twice, the first time returning without proof of dry land, 7 days elapsed, the dove went forth and returned with the olive branch. Was Jonah following the word of Yahweh by his actions?

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