Jewish prayer is the heartbeat of Judaism. In the very center of its elaborate liturgical experience lies one prayer that stands out among others – the Amida, literally, “the standing”. The main idea behind its name (“standing”) is the worshiper’s entrance into the presence of the “seated” Heavenly King. God has granted the ultimate audience to the humble worshipper. There is no one greater to meet.

Therefore, while other prayers are extremely important, it is Amida that deserves our closest attention. There is much that can be said about its current form and the history of its development. Together, we will consider those things slowly, step-by-step as we move through it, experiencing its beauty and admiring its depth of devotion.

Final preparations

Even though much preparation for this divine audience occurred in previous prayers, there is one more additional request that is uttered before God, right before the rest of the Amida can be prayed.

  אֲדנָי שפָתַי תִּפְתָּח וּפִי יַגִּיד תְּהִלָּתֶךָ

(Pronounced: Adonai sfatai tiftach upi yagid thilatecha)

“Lord, open my lips and my mouth will declare Your praise.”

The worshiper states that his mouth will announce God’s praise, only if God Himself will grant His permission by opening the mouth of His otherwise silent and submissive servant. Many prayers and praises were uttered prior to this, but none in the actual presence of the King of Kings in His own throne room. The time has come to meet Him and final approval from God to speak in His own presence is requested.

It is presumed that God, in fact, grants this humble request and the Jewish worshiper begins his serenade of praise, petition, and thanks to his Heavenly King and Father.

Blessing #1A (FATHERS)

ָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה אֱלהֵינוּ וֵאלהֵי אֲבותֵינוּ. אֱלהֵי אַבְרָהָם. אֱלהֵי יִצְחָק. וֵאלהֵי יַעֲקב

(Pronounced: Baruch ata Adonai elocheinu valohei avoteinu. Elochei Avraham, Elohei Itzhak vElochai Yakov). 

“Blessed are You, Lord our God and God of our fathers, God of Abraham, God of Isaac and God of Jacob.”

The standard blessing of “Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe…”, found in most Jewish prayers, is dramatically and purposely exchanged in Amida for “Blessed are You, Lord our God and God of our fathers”. The worshiper establishes his familial right and (by extension) his justified privilege to address God in this special and intimate way. Although the God the Jewish worshiper stands before is, in fact, the God of all Nations of the earth, it is this personal family connection with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob that establishes the right and the privilege of Amida. We will soon discover why.

Blessing #1B (FATHERS)

As we continue to journey through the Amida, we discover the foundation of this prayer, both in terms of why this God should be worshiped and adored as well as why the people of Israel (and all those who join them) receive a special clearance to enter into the throne room of God so frequently. (Amida is prayed 3 times per day, which in and of itself signifies the privilege of full and unconditional access to God). 

הָאֵל הַגָּדול הַגִּבּור וְהַנּורָא אֵל עֶלְיון

(Pronounced: HaEl hagadol, hagibor vehanorah. El Elion.).

The great, mighty and awesome God, the Most High God…

This seemingly accidental, rapid-fire description of Israel’s God is, in fact, a well-considered foundational statement of this covenant relationship. He is האל הגדול (pronounced: haEl haGadol) – The Great God.


The key here is to remember that a Biblical worldview presupposes the existence of other powerful otherworldly beings (i.e. gods). The definite article (ה) points to this God not being alone, but being the most high God over all others. This specification of Him being not just another powerful heavenly being, but The Great God is reinforced with his description as אל עליון (pronounced: El Elyon) and translated as Most High God (or literally, “the High God” which reflects ancient Near Eastern cosmology). Notice that no definite article is used in this case, confirming the earlier observation. He is also described as האל הגבור (pronounced haEl haGibor), which means something analogous to, “The Hero God,” “The Warrior God,” or (as in our more sanitized translation), “The Mighty God”. On the top of all this, Israel’s deity is said to be האל הנורה (haEl haNora), which means, “The Awesome God,” or literally, “The Terrible (fear inspiring) God”.

ּגּומֵל חֲסָדִים טובִים. וְקונֵה הַכּל

(Pronounced: Gomel hasidim tovim. Vekone hakol.)

Who bestows loving kindness and goodness and is master of all.

The phraseגומל חסדים טובים is best translated as “He grants His kind faithfulness”. This important phrase establishes that Israel’s God must not be understood only as Israel’s King – He is also Israel’s heavenly Father. This theme of Avinu Malkenu (Our Father, Our King) is very important in Judaism. In many ways it defines the nature of Israel’s Covenant with her God. This loving, kind, and faithful bestowal of good things is confessed in the short phrase, וקונה הקול (vekone hakol), which basically means that God rightfully owns everything.

וְזוכֵר חַסְדֵּי אָבות. וּמֵבִיא גואֵל לִבְנֵי בְנֵיהֶם לְמַעַן שְׁמו בְּאַהֲבָה:

(Pronounced: Vezocher hasidei avot. Umevi goal livnei bneihem leman shmo beahavah).

Who remembers the good deeds of the fathers, and brings a redeemer to their children, in love and for the sake of His name

One of the key concepts to consider here is the merits of the fathers. This blessing clearly states that the basis of Israel’s covenantal life is in rooted in God’s memory of the faithfulness displayed in the lives of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. In other words, God’s own covenant faithfulness to future generations of the people of Israel was always based on the merits of their fathers.


One example of prime importance of such action is the everyday reading of the Akida (the binding of Isaac) chapter as part of morning prayers of Jews everywhere. Despite Abraham’s shortcomings, he was able to display full faith in his God when he drew the knife and raised it over the bound body of his beloved son (Isaac). Actions like this were understood in Judaism to be meritorious for all future generations in Israel. On the one hand, this Jewish idea seems to deny the main Christian contention that it was Christ’s death on a Roman cross that brought redemption to the entire world. However, upon closer examination the opposite conclusion may emerge. The idea that faithfulness of one (Christ Jesus) can merit salvation and forgiveness for the entire world is in fact the same Jewish idea of the fathers’ merits, now fully realized in the Messiah Jesus. 

Blessing #1C (FATHERS)

The last refrain of the first section of Amida is also its short summary statement.

מֶלֶךְ עוזֵר וּמושִׁיעַ וּמָגֵן: בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה’, מָגֵן אַבְרָהָם

(Pronounced: Melech, Ozer, uMoshia, u Magen. Baruch ata Adonai Magen Avraam).

King, Helper, Savior and Shield. Blessed are You, Lord, Shield of Abraham.

The summary word “King” reflects every Jew’s primary relationship with God. He or she is God’s servant – not the other way around. God does not exist in order to serve the Jew. The Jew exists in order to serve God. It all begins here.

The word translated as “helper” in English does not fully capture the sense of ultimate commitment that Israel’s God has towards the Jewish worshiper. In the stories of the Torah, we witness not only the imperfect faithfulness of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob to their God, but also (and primarily) the perfect faithfulness of their God to each one of them. He is their helper, but in a very different sense that we normally conceive of helpers.

Ezer in Hebrew carries in itself the idea of an interventional agent who is willing to die (and even to kill) for another. Eve was called to be such a helper for Adam (Gen.2:18) as was Abraham when his risked everything to free his nephew Lot (Gen.14:12-16). Israel’s God, the God of Jewish prayer, is not only the King who reveals His will and expects to be obeyed. He is also fully committed to the well-being of the worshiper. Metaphorically speaking, He is willing to die and to kill to ensure the worshiper’s success and safety.

As a Jew confesses his or her God to be the Savior, the worshiper recalls all the occasions when God did not simply intervene on behalf of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but did so successfully. Each one of the patriarchs (along with their families) was literally rescued by God from the hands of evil men. The refrain of the Amida presupposes this collective memory of God’s faithful deeds on behalf of the founding fathers of the Jewish people. It is one thing to be willing to help, but it is quite another have the ability to help (this idea of God’s potency will be emphasized in the next blessing of the Amida).

The fourth word describing God’s relationship to the worshiper is Magen, most accurately translated as “shield”. Interestingly it is this word (Shield) and not the other preceding words (King, Helper, and Savior) that are repeated as the ultimate summary in this ancient Hebrew prayer “Blessed are You, Lord, Shield of Abraham”.

First, note that YHVH’s status as King, Helper, Savior, and Shield calls for the praise and blessing upon Him by the worshipping servant. The Jew must verbalize his or her theology. He or she may not remain silent in the face of God’s truth breaking into the world of his creation. Since the word Jew (Yehudi) basically means, “he who thanks God,” the entire life of a Jew consists of an ongoing practice of blessing, praising, magnifying, and thanking God for His deeds.

Second, consider that the Most High God is addressed in Hebrew simply as “You”. Hebrew, unlike other languages, does not differentiate between “You” as spoken to someone possessing great honor (such royalty or divinity) and “you” as spoken to a peer, a mere human. Israel’s God is addressed by the worshipper in very personal way characteristic of addressing another human being. This is very consistent with how Abraham spoke to God during times of disagreement and negotiation with Him (i.e. Gen.18:25).

This difference in theology can be seen in many elements of Judaism and Christianity. For example, if one was to compare the physical structures of Church and Synagogue, one would see this basic difference in the Christian and Jewish approach to God. Christian cathedrals, with their high sealings, were designed to project God’s transcendent magnificence. Jewish synagogues, with their low sealings, were designed to project God’s intimate presence among His people. This of course was not always the case, but can be observed as a general principle.

Third, reflect on the fact that it was after Abraham’s successful sortie to rescue his nephew Lot from local warlords (at great risk to himself and his family), that God spoke to him, calling Abraham to continue to display courage and not be afraid. God personally guaranteed protection and reward for Abraham in response to seeing his commitment, courage, and generosity towards Lot, and subsequently to Melchizedek.

Jewish worshipers, along with all those who have joined them through Christ Jesus, can approach God in a very special way – confident of the fact that He will protect them, save them, and help them as He rules over them with His love and His might as their Heavenly King. Yet this covenant relationship with God is contingent on the faith and faithfulness of worshiper as well. The more faith and courage they display, the more they can count on the Heavenly King to protect and reward them beyond their wildest imagination.



  1. Jesus the Christ was asked by one His disciples; “..Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples. And He said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven…” [Luke 11:1-2].

    Notice Jesus makes no mention at all in the NT to pray as a Judahite, but rather summarily teaches the NT born again believer, to pray as Jesus’ Spirit leads the believer and to beware to not pray as the scribes who pray for a show making long prayers which merits greater damnation [Luke 20:47]. Pray as a John 3:16 believer.

    • The disciples had already prayed the traditional Jewish prayers all of their life. When a disciple asks his rabbi how to pray, the rabbi would give a condensed version of his core teachings that the disciple would memorize and include in his regular prayers. This is a very different issue to the one who makes a show of his prayers.

      • WOW! One of the best! Of course I don’t know how Jesus telling His disciples to pray to their Holy Father goes contrary to what your article says but some will find a way. Know much of this is tied to Jewish history/tradition but the underlying message is great. Thanks!

      • My God! Awesome.It has greatly built my faith. Hebrews11:6without faith it is impossible..
        Hear oh Israel, the Lord our God He is One.
        The Mesiah came from God and fulfilled all things which were written in the law, the prophets,the psalms, concerning Him according to the will of the Father.

  2. So Dr Eli what is it you are saying? Are you saying Christians should adopt Jewish prayers? As the previous contributor says Jesus gave us an outline prayer. Doesn’t Paul say ‘Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words.’ Rom 8:26
    I see no record of Jesus praying Jewish prayers during his ministry or saying others should.

    • I think I understand where you’re coming from, Ray. This article isn’t to promote adoption, but for people who want to better understand the Hebrew prayers that Yeshua and the disciples most likely prayed. You don’t think they did? Remember, in synagogue where they attended regularly this prayer was standard. Concluding that Yeshua did not pray this is from silence. That would be like concluding that Yeshua did not bathe, right?

  3. Wonderful explication of the Amida.

    Two passages come to mind – Gen 15:9-21, the LORD himself only passed through the carcasses. Solely taking on the liability of the contract for both sides. Such a deal!

    Mat 27:51, opening the door to the throne to all who may come in recognition of who sits on the Mercy Seat between the cherubim.

    Although, did you meant to write “high ceilings”?


    • An group of 120 Jewish scribes (including Ezra), sages, and prophets (including Biblical prophets like Haggai and Zechariah) called the “Great Assembly” produced the Amidah prayer after the Babylonian exile and long before Yeshua.

    • Israel Bible Center equips you with the tools you need to enter into the Jewish world of Scripture. We provide first-rate teaching, and the opportunity to learn from some of the world’s top scholars. As a student, you will be able to interact personally with our teaching faculty, and gain access to hundreds of hours of Bible courses, including Jewish Insights Into Scriptures I and The Jewish Apostle Paul I: His World. Become a part of the community of teachers and students at Israel Bible Center today!

  4. I am a born again Christian, but for whatever reason, God has placed a love in my heart for the Jewish people and the land of Israel. Thank you for teaching so much about the language and the culture.

    • Absolutely! Hey if God has placed Israel on your heart then act on that passion. Learn and serve in every way that you can.


  5. Shalom. Thank you. If it were not for the Jews we would not pray or know how to pray. I believe the “Lords Prayer” is a Jewish prayer given to Jews from their Rabbi. I think it should be taken for granted that Yeshua as a Jew said the Jewish prayers. He prayed to His Father often. I pray to the Heavenly Father, as a Gentile, in the name of His Son Yeshua Ha Mashiach.

  6. Thank you for this explanation of the Amida. I’ve prayed once or twice with friends in the local synagogue, which sadly is now closing, and wondered about this prayer. Bye the way, the initial sentence in Hebrew is missing the Beit, and farther down, the Gemel is missing off Gomel. I’ve tried to type in Hebrew letters before, copying out a Psalm for my teacher, and find the text often ‘slips’ for no obvious reason.

  7. I just completed my first review of the talk between Dr. Shulman and Dr. Eli. Eye-opening at the least.

    I understand Dr. Shulman to state that the bloodline Jew has the responsibility to follow the Torah closer than the converted Gentile.

    I understand this to the point as the Jerusalem Council’s requirements for me are basic and few. I have always looked upon these requirements as the basic requirements to enter the Christian fellowship as a converted Gentile.

    My problem is the entire 11th chapter of Romans where Paul equates the Gentile believer with the Jewish believer. (CON’D).

  8. (CONT’D)

    Paul spends an great amount of time explaining God will bring ALL bloodline Jews into His heavenly realm. I base this on verse 1 and the Olive Tree analogy where Paul is overly cautious to bring the non-believing Jews (the branches removed from the Olive Tree, Israelites, but not burned) back into God’s kingdom.

    As a Gentile, with a majority Jewish DNA, I am grafted onto the original Olive Tree, thus becoming a Spiritual Jew in the eye of God.

    If a child of God, spiritual Jew, why am I not to keep the Torah as a bloodline Jew?

    • So, William, I would invite you to have another look at Acts 15. The four requirements are for one who is “turning to God,” a brand new believer, and James explains the reason for so few initial commandments was because the new believer would certainly attend synagogue on Sabbath to keep learning from “Moses” (v.21). I think the commandments in Acts 15 are the minimum requirements for a Gentile to join the new Jewish movement started by Yeshua, not the maximum. Obviously God expects us all to produce excellent fruit, and that means pleasing actions.

      • Thank you for replying to my above question.

        The continued learning in the synagogue would lead to a more thorough indoctrination into the Jewish Torah. Thus as I am taught more of the Torah, the more of its teachings I am expected to observe and keep.

        I find your statement, “certainly attend synagogue on Sabbath”, interesting as I am wrestling with my keeping of the Sabbath vs. Sunday worship. Is the Gentile believer to keep the Sabbath today? If so, what are the required practices for me.

  9. Can you please clarify something for me? Do you think Jewish prayers are somewhat similar to Catholic or Muslim prayers in that they are memorized, chanted, and somewhat mechanical? Didn’t Jesus speak against repetitive words when we pray: Matthew 6:7-8? Thanks!

    • Like Yeshua, Judaism does not endorse rote prayer, but of course like anywhere, it still happens. Prayer should be done with proper intention and heart. That said, it is possible to pray the same prayer and it mean something new each time since we are on a journey in this life, like reading the same biblical passage and learning something new that you never saw before.

    • We are very happy that you’ve joined our discussion forum. Would you believe that these articles are only a taste of what Israel Bible Center has to offer? We also provide comprehensive teaching on a variety of biblical, historical, and cultural topics. You might begin with Exodus and The New Testament or Leviticus and The New Testament. You’ll be amazed at the Jewish world that awaits you. Don’t delay another minute: enroll now!

  10. I was surprised to see you refer to Saul/Paul as the “beloved disciple”. in my view there is no way he was that person. The traditional view has been that John the fisherman was that person. I have not believed that for several years now, but recently I have found a book on the subject which I believe should interest you. It is : The Disciple Whom Jesus Loved: by J Phillips. This work is available online and can be downloaded or a hard copy requested. Mainly my Jewish believer friends agree with me that this book is the truth. Others have greater difficulty sometimes. I recommend it to you in the interests of accurate Biblical READING. Thanks so much for your time and attention.

  11. I dont know if I am wrong but according to the Bible John was the beloved disciple of the 12. Saul/Paul became a believer after Jesus died for our sins. Paul also become a beloved apostle.

    • Yes, John is traditionally equated with the disciple “whom Jesus loved;” yes, John was among the inner 12; yes, Shaul believed in Jesus after his crucifixion; and yes, Paul was an apostle, but I’m not sure where it says that he was a “beloved apostle” (except by other believers, Acts 15:25).

  12. Yeshua intercede for us- The Holy Spirit intercede for us. When we line up with those intercesary prayers we can really be running on all cylinders.

  13. Dr Eli ,I am blessed by Israel Bible center, God bless you all , I would love to get a copy of the Hebrew bible. Kindly is the same word Ezer ‘ helper’ the same as the one used to refer to the Holy Spirit?

    • The word “Helper” for the Holy Spirit in the New Testament is from the Greek word “parakleet,” which literally means “one called near.” It can be translated as Advocate/Intercessor/Comforter/Counselor/Helper. It is not identical to the Hebrew ‘ezer which has a much broader meaning.

  14. Could you consider an article on comparing the KJV with the 1917 JPS concerning Psalm 2:12? Those translators seem concerned enough about a belief, that they distort Scripture to reject someone. They might be in for a pleasant surprise. Shalom.

    • Grammatically, both translations are simultaneously permissible and yet still slightly awkward. As you know, “Bar” is the Aramaic loan word for “son” (appearing only here and Prov.31:2), but it is also a more ancient Hebrew word meaning pure (Job 11:4; Ps.24:4). So how should we understand Ps.2:12? Both ways maybe.

  15. Thank you for this article. .my cup runneth over after i read it. Because of the faithfulness of the fathers the Jew approaches YHVH with that as a token. The Jewish Shaul now remembers the faithfulness of Christ. Eph 1:3. But same approach.

  16. As a Roman Catholic, I am very grateful for these essays on the Jewish understanding of Scripture. Our priests are emphasizing that in order to read the Bible intelligently, we must try to understand the context, which is not only academically enlightening but a guide to our own prayer lives.

  17. In my last visit to Eretz Israel, I was shown that the same spirit which formed all things from out of nothing could be considered consistent with the HaRuach of the Holy Spirit. As a Christian, would you say he also creates the new heart referred to in Jeremiah?

    • The job of the Spirit is to lead us into all truth and to enable us to walk in obedience to God. God is the one that creates within us a new heart and He is the one that sends His spirit to enable us to keep His statutes and judgments. Ezek.36:26-27

    • We are very happy that you’ve joined our discussion forum. Would you believe that these articles are only a taste of what Israel Bible Center has to offer? We also provide comprehensive teaching on a variety of biblical, historical, and cultural topics. You might begin with The Stories of Jewish Christ: First Century Diversity or The Jewish Apostle Paul I: His World. You’ll be amazed at the Jewish world that awaits you. Don’t delay another minute: enroll now!

  18. I am Paul and I am blessed by reading your articles. I have subscrbed to your mails. Can someone sponsor me a Complete Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible only through courier and I live in India. Thank you Pastor.

  19. Thank you Dr Eli, The first prayer out of my mouth as I awake this morning was, ‘Lord, show me how to pray in this season.’ The first thing I read this morning… this article. God is good.

  20. I thank God so much for connecting me to His ministry through the IBC. In fact I have learnt a lot ever since BAS sent me this link. I realise that we westerners and our preachers use most bible words with understanding that is nowhere near the intended meaning.

  21. May God help us all and guide us in our pursuit of Him so we do not err by what we know in error. Thank you so much, Dr. Eli and your team at IBC.

    • “Faith and faithfulness” belong together as a single unit. One does not exist without the other (Jam.2:17). In fact English Bibles usually translate the exact same Greek word (pistis) in the Old Testament (LXX) as “faithfulness” but in the New Testament only as “faith”. The reason? Interpretation. Faith has come to mean a mental exercise, but faithfulness is works, but in fact they are the same word. Faith IS faithfulness, and faithfulness IS faith. Faith without works is no faith at all.

      • Substituting “faithfulness” for “faith” sometimes makes for awkward English, Professor. Example:

        1Co.16:13 – Watch! Stand firm in the faithfulness! Be courageous! Be strong!
        Gal.1:23 – but they only heard: “He who once persecuted us now preaches the faithfulness that he once tried to destroy.”

        How may this be resolved?

        • If the problem is with English, then you could switch to Hebrew. LOL. My point is that “faith” has (sadly) come to mean a mental exercise only, instead of a mindset that spills over into every aspect of life (faithfulness).

  22. Thank you for sharing this spiritual, relational depth w/us, including the Hebrew AND transliteration.
    Blessings for peace & wellness.


Please enter your name here
Words left: 50
Please enter your comment!