The Idea of the New Covenant as presented in the Gospels and the Pauline letters may sound “new” to modern Christ-followers. But is it really?

Jeremiah declared that in the future the LORD would establish a New Covenant with both the house of Israel and the house of Judah. This covenant, unlike the previous one, would be characterized by God’s Torah being written on the very hearts of the Ancient People of God (Jer. 31:31-34).

But were there Jews in the first century who did not follow Jesus, but believed that they lived in the days of the New Covenant? The answer to this question is yes.

When several important archaeological discoveries were made, it became clear that first century Jesus-followers were not alone in laying claim to the idea of the New Covenant. For example, we read that some Jews called their faithful: “…to observe the Sabbath according to its true meaning and the feasts and the day of the Fast according to the utterances of them who entered into the New Covenant in the land of Damascus… To love everyone his brother as himself, and to strengthen the hand of the poor and the needy and the stranger…” (CD 8:15-17).

The Jewish followers of Christ Jesus differed with them in that they were persuaded that the New Covenant was inaugurated not near Damascus, but near Jerusalem (Matt. 26:26-30) and that through the blood of Jesus. So, was the New Covenant really “new”? No, not at all –  in fact, it was a very old Jewish idea.

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100 COMMENTS

  1. Yes, it is completely *new*. Those in the new Covenant, as stated in Jeremiah 31:31-34, are to be *recognised* as those whom God has written His Laws into their hearts, i.e., they will *only* be those who have the capacity to obey God’s Laws completely *naturally* out of *conviction* and not merely by faith or belief. The new covenant is to be instituted by the *Comforter* Who “would judge the World, because we *failed to believe* Jesus Christ”. *The Spirit of Truth* Jesus Christ promised us! John 16:13. But Who and where is He? And who is seeking Him?

    • Those so called “NEW” completely (as you call it), are very old Northern and Southern Kingdoms (Israel and Judah) 🙂 in Jer. 31:31-33.

      • I know you have a better understanding than that! Just read the “earlier than the Gospels” writings of Paul in both 1 Corinthians and Romans; “this cup is the new covenant in my blood”; Jesus was aware of Jeremiah, it most certainly can be assumed, and is talking about something very different from writing Torah on one’s heart — not that that is an undesirable thing

    • Is it really completely new? God said: Mic 2:7(JPS) Do I change, O house of Jacob? … Mal 3:6(KJV) For I the LORD change not; … Joh_10:35 … and the scripture cannot be broken;
      If we cannot trust completely in God’s Word as standing in truth, then how can we have any faith?
      The only change made from OLD to NEW was the TYPE of Blood for atonement. Nothing more.
      From temporary corruptible animal blood to ETERNAL SINLESS (Lamb of God) BLOOD which covers us all if we choose it.

    • Covenant, faith and trust are one. By complete surrender in repentance and humble gratefulness does His Spirit enter our hearts and lives.

  2. I think Yeshua taught Torah. He said that He said that none of the commands have changed and will not change until the end of time as we know it. So, what’s new? The new is the old rediscovered. Shalom

    • With you, Delores. Yeshua was Jewish and he kept everything exactly how his father made it. No changes. Ever. I also believe that Christians practice the Sabbath on the first day of the week, different from the day on which our Creator rested.

      • The Christians in the New Testament didn’t worship on the first day of the week. They kept it. Just couldn’t travel over a certain distance. That’s why they waited till 1st day to go visit each other and break bread. It was Constantine a Roman ruler wanting to bring sun worshippers into the church that changed the day around 325 AD. The sun worshipers only worshiped on 1st day of week. Constantine was bringing a lot of idol worshipers into the church.

      • How do we know on which day our Creator rested? We don’t. The calendar that the ancients followed in the Near East is not the same as our current Gregorian calendar. I don’t believe the Jewish calendar weathered that change intact either as their Shabbat falls on Roman Saturday. So…bottom line, we don’t know which day God rested. Perhaps we can agree on a principle that God instituted – to set aside a day each week dedicated to rest. And then rest on that day.

        • Actually, using a different calendar does not affect the seven-day weekly cycle. Yeshua and the apostles kept the seventh-day sabbath, and any good English dictionary will confirm which is the seventh day of the week.

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      • the Sabbath…you hit on one of my pet peeves. I can not understand how anyone can read Ex. 20 and say the Sabbath is the first day of the week. It clearly is the seventh. It could be augured that the 1st is the Lord’s day, but I believe that every day is the Lord’s day.

        • Priscilla the Lord’s day relates to the Day of the Lord in which the Lord returns That was the time line in which John in the Spirit seeing the visions of what was going to happen at the end of this age at Christ return The Day of the LORD

  3. Regarding the “old” Covenant(s) given through Moses:
    1. God rendered it “obsolete” when He made a “new” and “better” Covenant (HEBREWS 8:6,7,13)
    2. When God made the “new” Covenant He did not take the “old” one and cross out a few things and write in a few new things. He calls it the “NEW Covenant”, not the REVISED Covenant. His approach seems similar to that of building a new house instead of fixing up an old one.

    • Actually the Hebrew in Jeremiah for “new” (hadash) often means “renewed.” Now if you are saying that the covenant given through Moses is obsolete, what do you say are the terms of the “New Covenant”? According to Jeremiah, the New Covenant is the Torah (what Moses gave) written on hearts (instead of on stone).

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      • Do you think it’s accurate to say the Lord is promising to write the sefer berit from Sinai on the hearts of reunited Israel (along with the broader mitzvot and traditions), or is He writing “instruction” on their hearts by way of a covenant not like that in the desert? Since this new covenant also involves the restoration of the kingdom and ingathering of the nations, what is He writing on the grafted gentile’s heart? Am I always a ger among the covenant community? (If so, glory to God. I deserve to be an utter stranger).

        • The new covenant is God’s Torah written on our hearts, which means what He desires will be our desire on a heart level. We will be driven to do what is good an right because the Holy Spirit helps us walk in God’s commandments. Gentile believers are partakers of that same holy spirit.

      • Shouldn’t the Law from the very beginning have been written in the people’s heart? what about Psalm 119 then. I believe the “New” or “renewed” covenant is nothing but the Messiah Jesus and the Holy Spirit coming into our life and living or dwelling in our “heart” I think this is what the New Covenant is all about according to Romans 10:9.

        • The difference between the Old and New Covenants is the giving of God’s spirit. Apparently, the holy spirit was not given on such a large scale as on and following the Pentacost event.

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      • Actually, since the Hebrew in Jeremiah for “new” can mean “New”; it doesn’t always have to mean “Renew”. Since the Greek in the NT for “new” (kainos) when used in the phrase “New Covenant”‘ can ONLY mean “new” (not “renew”), on this evidence alone one could conclude that the New Covenant is new; not renewed.

        • Based on the Hebrew in Jeremiah 31:33 (…I will put My law in their inward parts, and I will write it on their hearts…), What is meant by “My law” other than Torah? The newness of the New Covenant isn’t the content; rather, it is the location of the original and perfect content: the heart.

          • The answer to your question is: “Bear one another’s burdens, and thereby fulfill the law of Christ.” GALATIANS 6:2

          • Oh the irony…Gene, the Hebrew for “law” can mean “the Law” as a proper noun (of Moses/Torah), but it also means simply “instruction”. It does not have to mean “OT Law”. Gal.6:2 is talking about fulfilling the instruction of Messiah (to love each other, Joh.13:34) by bearing each other’s burdens. Are you equating “the law of Christ” with “My law” in Jer.31? (Although I agree that everything Yeshua taught came from God’s law. So are we in agreement, then that Christ’s teachings were founded on [and a continuation of] Torah?)

          • I agree: “law” used in GALATIANS6:2 does NOT mean OT “law”. The Greek word for “law” that God inspired Paul to use in “law of Christ” is “nomos”. If God had meant “instruction” the Greek word “paideia” would have been a better choice like in EPHESIANS6:4 “instruction of the Lord”.

    • Exactly. The writer of Hebrews used the idea of the last will and testament of a dying person. Any old will and testament was completely superceded and rendered null and void the minute a newer one was signed…no matter what was wiled in the previous versions they had no legal standing whatsoever. The new will and testament would only go into effect upon the death of the testator. Hence Jesus came to fulfill the old will and testament of God and peach the new one. It took effect at his death.

  4. So are you saying that the New Covenant is the same covenant as the ones with Abraham and Moses, just inaugurated in Jerusalem with the blood of Yeshua? Or is the New Covenant merely promised in the Tanakh and comes as an new/different covenant to us today?

    • It sounds like you get it, Jon. Yes, the New Covenant is a separate covenant, just like Abraham’s and Moses’ are separate, but the terms are still consistent with God’s character and instructions (Torah), not contradicting previous covenants. Yeshua established it in Jerusalem.

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  5. Since the scriptures were speaking to the Jewish people at that time, should one conclude that the laws that were to be written on the heart where the laws of Torah? There were no New Testament scriptures at the time of Jesus preaching, so should Gentile Believers in Jesus understand the scriptures best through a Jewish mindset, even though they do not have to become Jewish to express their faith.

  6. Thank you Dr Eli, it is fact that the New Covenant is actually older than the Old. Its design was planed in eternity before creation and proclaimed by God as Adam sinned Genesis 3v15. It runs throughout the Old Testament as Israelites of old saw in the sacrifices for example that Messiah would come and suffer to redeem His people Heb 1v1. When we grasp this truth how amazing is our God. Thank you so much brother Eli.

  7. Absolutely, Dr. Eli — I basically agree with Delores; however, I would refer to what Jesus said about the Tanakh, as clarified, or editorialized rather than “rediscovered”; and although the NT was codefided when He appeared — nothing could be more obvious than that Jesus accurately presented truths of the Tanakh (For example, Matthew 19:7…). Jesus did articulate Tanakh truths accurately where many writers tried to…which were shrouded by traditions — Maimonides’ expectations of the Messiah were, for example, far off exegesis.

  8. The New covenant was a continuation of the blessing portion of the Abrahamic covenant and was sealed by Jesus Christ on the cross.

  9. “new” can mean new in the sense that the audience did not hear of this message interpreted this way. Some see the atom as a physical entity but as a wave is newer information and furthermore, new in the sense that it is composed of more particles, not just of protons, neutrons and electrons but of particles described of in terms of colours.

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    • Actually, let’s look at the Hebrew name of the “New Testament”. Brit Chadasha. Brit means “covenant” Chadasha means “renewed, rebuilt, repaired” and that fits precisely with what took place. The TYPE of Blood (Divine sinless eternal Blood of the Lamb of God). The Covenant is still in place, still legally binding at Mt. Sinai and still is today and all the descendants of Israel are still legally bound, so death would be the punishment. Enter Jesus Christ who gave us a RENEWED Covenant by virtue of the change of Blood.

  10. I believe it is a new covenant and the fulfillment of an old testament promise. if Jesus is the Messiah then it’s new in what the old could not do taking away of sin with the blood of animals, that couldn’t take away mans sin Christ did as the sacrificial lamb. Christ by his own blood brought an end to the old covenant also bringing in the new. the new covenant is of greater benefit for us. the old covenant was written on tablets of stone but the new covenant written in our hearts. Hebrew Ch. 9

    • No ,you have it all wrong ! The only thing that was abolished in the Torah was the animal sacrifice .The Torah and Tanakh has not been abolished .Y’Shua Himself is our mediator our Cohen Gadol ( High Priest ) .Read Hebrews chapters 7 and 8 .

      • Who knows, maybe you’re right, but what do you do with passages that talk about sacrifices during the Millennial Reign of Messiah? (Isa 56:6-8; Zech 14:16-21; Jer 33:15-18, Ezek 43:18-46:24)

  11. Again we have a distorted view and use of terms. Jesus was talking about what Moses prophesied in Leviticus and Deuteronomy about the future of the descendants of Jacob. Deuteronomy 32 is the Song of Moses concerning this end that Isaiah also spoke of in his prophesies. The book of Hebrews is a lawyers way of stating God’s case, the old was fading away to make room for the new when Christ would usher in the Kingdom of God spoken by John the baptizer. Jesus also prophesied about it’s coming and God the Father confirmed in Revelation 1:1-3.

    • The Torah and Tanakh has not been abolished .Only the animal sacrifices were replaced since Y’Shua Himself became the” Perfect Lamb of G-d .” He is also our Mediator or Cohen Gadol ( High Priest ) .Y’Shua said Himself ,heaven and earth will pass away but my Words will never pass away .To understand The New Covenant one needs to study the Torah and Tanakh ( Old Testament ) .Y’Shua Himself is a Jew !

      • Yeshua also says that not one jot or tittle will pass from the Law, but the law talks about animal sacrifice. Just because the Perfect Lamb came doesn’t necessarily mean that there won’t be sacrifices to remember what Yeshua did.

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  12. What makes this one new is the New High Priest, who isn’t Levitical; the blood of the “once-for-all” sacrifice of the Lamb, which the Father accepted, and which did away with all sin – past, present and future.

    • Faith (in Hebrew) is faithfulness: acting faithfully (consistently reliably and righteously). It is not a state of mind, it is a lifestyle. Conviction is a temporary, nagging drive to do something. Thank you Linda for bringing up the issue of defining terms. Muddled term definitions only lead to more confusion, I think.

  13. Please can you revisit your reference of Matthew 28:26-30 on the origin of the new covenant? In twenty-one translations of Matthew that I have consulted chapter 28 ends at verse 20 and none of the chapter is about the new covenant.
    Thanks.

  14. The new is sealed by the blood of Jesus, and Jesus say. “ a new commandment I give … “ it’s the love. The work of The Holy Spirit in the believer heart, it’s a New covenant because the Old one has not power to to fulfill God ‘will,the new one transform the man, the Old one was no completa, now in Jesus God reveals everything.

  15. Just a question I have discussed with several, and most do not agree.
    I have this idea, that:
    Matthew 5:18:
    //”For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished.//

    The words: // until all is accomplished//:

    Is a message of when the Covenant of the Spirit will be a reality

    Because nothing will be changed, so before his death.

    • What do you mean by “Covenant of the Spirit”? The sending of the Spirit after Yeshua’s ascension? Personally, I don’t see the two ideas connected, but how would you explain the connection between “the giving of the Spirit” with “until all is accomplished”?

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    • Jalmar, your point is well made. While on the cross, just before he died, Jesus declared, “It is finished!” Jesus fulfilled the Torah and is the Word that fulfills all God’s expectations and reconciles the world. As the angels declared about Jesus, “On earth peace, good will to mankind.”

  16. Interesting! The misinterpretations contributed to my acceptance of replacement theology. I wasn’t a “Christ follower”, so it was assumed that I was in the wrong covenant (old). I notice that writing the law in their hearts is associated with becoming children of God? What baffles me is the next sentence “they shall teach no more every man his neighbor”. This seems to contradict “go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. This vs implies we have to go to church to be saved.

    • Thanks for chiming in Kat. One day, no one will have to teach his family or friend who God is and what He desires, but that part has not come to pass yet. We still have a lot to learn.

  17. As Torah-keeping believers are so desirous to keep us all reminded, Messiah “did not come to abolish the law, but to fulfill it.” UNTIL it was fulfilled, however, we could not enter into the obviously NEW (as in “subsequent “) dispensation of grace in which our sin is now covered by the ultimate Sacrifice, and not by the blood of bulls and goats. Some terms have a perfectly good reason for existing; they are not all mere happenstance or useless tradition.

  18. The New Covenant came into existence, only after the death, and resurrection, of The sinless, sacrificial Lamb of God.
    Jesus Christ, The Messiah.
    The book of Hebrews explains it.
    HE Became The High Priest.
    HE offered Himself, as The Spotless Lamb of God.
    Hebrews 8, 9 and 10 explains it.
    UNLESS WE COME TO HIM BY AND THROUGH FAITH, AND BELIEVE WHO HE SAYS HE IS.
    WE CAN NOT ENTER INTO HIS NEW KINGDOM.

  19. Dr. Eli, I think that your piece minimises the importance of the Lamb of the New Covenant. My question is, if it had been in the old times of the physical Tabernacle, and those Jews you’re talking about didn’t have the sign of the Covenant, ie, if they weren’t circumcised, they wouldn’t have been allowed into the Gate. In fact, they would’ve been stoned. This New Covenant is ratified by the blood of the Lamb, Jesus Christ, and it was not operative until the Old Covenant became obsolete. What you’re doing, Dr. Eli, is new wine and old wineskins.

  20. The new covenant was prophesied by Jeremiah and other Old Covenant sages BUT it was inaugurated by Yeshua in His blood. An idea and a reality are not in any way synonymous. They are completely different. The new covenant is not a Jewish idea but a fulfillment of God’s word and proof of the Messiah IP of Jesus. My prayer for Israel is that they come to personal relationship with G_D through faith in Jesus Christ.

  21. The New Covenant is the same in essence with Sinai covenant. Jesus does not announce a new requirements or commandments for the new covenant.
    In the Bible there is no old covenant to the church to be a new one.
    The old Covenant with people of Israel, and the New with Judea and Israel.

  22. I often have to explain being reached with the OT and saved. So why is “took them by the hand” different than “write it on their hearts”? (Jer 31:32-33). I think the word hand is associated with both the power of God and the mark of the beast. Why were they disagreeing on where the Covenant was inaugurated? Perhaps I am missing the point because (like many), I learned to disassociate laws from God. Did the 1st century disagreement have to do with laws therefore location mattered?

    • I think both the community in Damascus as well as the believing community in Jerusalem understood that the commandments of God would be written on the heart, meaning that our reluctance to obey God because of our sinfulness and selfishness would be transformed into an inner heart desire to obey God out of love. Just, the Damascus community did not know about Yeshua.

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  23. “Sacrifices to remember Yeshua” Maybe after the Church is taken away for God cannot dwell in two temples and right now He dwells in us. After the taken away happen, then yes, sacrifices will be established once again but I don’t know if it will be to remember Yeshua since many do not believe in Him.

  24. The “New Covenant” is the fulfilment of the Abrahamic Covenant, the promise to Abraham, that through his “Seed”(Christ), the nations would be blessed. The “Old Covenant” is a shadow of the Redemptive work of the Seed of Abraham(Christ), the sacrificial Lamb of God. Paul says the Sinaitic Covenant which came 430 years after the Abrahamic covenant did not disannul the promises(by faith) made to Abe. “The law (OT/OC) was a tutor leading(pointing) to Christ”

  25. Dr Eli. Hope you are well. I follow your line of thought and I agree with you on this matter. Key to the new covenant I are the terms of the covenant – the Torah written on our hearts. It was established through the blood of Yeshua at the Passover Seder service. Confusion, I admit, is the lack of understanding the old covenant. Others believe it is the old sacrifices, others the 10 comm. What exactly is the old covenant?

    • By “old covenant,” Jeremiah (31:32) means in the day that God brought Israel out of Egypt. From Exo.24:7 it is a book, from Exo.34:28 it is the Ten Commandments, and Exo.19:5 is a good summary. Basically the Old Covenant is the whole Torah: “‘you shall be My people, and I will be your God,’ and these are the terms.”

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  26. Jeremiah talked about what constitutes the New Covenant, Isaiah spoke about who will institute the New Covenant and Ezekiel about How it will be achieved.

  27. Dear Dr Eli

    In regard to ancient near-east covenants, if one party (1) fails to keep their part of the covenant, and the other party (2) persists with the covenant for a period to give them (1) a chance, but ultimately insists on the blood sacrifice of the covenant, does this terminate the covenant and remove the obligations made by the “aggrieved” party (2)?

    Allan T. Todd

    • It depends on what is stipulated in the covenant itself. In regards to the Mosaic Covenant, it actually explicates both what would happen if Israel obeyed as well as what would happen if Israel disobeyed. So, if Israel disobeyed God’s commandments, but the covenant contained stipulations for what would happen in such a case, is it suddenly null and void? Nope.

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  28. Yes, I believe that Jesus Christ revealed the New Testament hidden in the Old Testament.
    Ya saya percaya bahwa Yesus Kristus menyingkapkan Perjanjian Baru yang tersembunyi dalam Perjanjian Lama.

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  29. Jesus gave a new commandment, called the great commission, to go into all the world and preach the gospel. This is different from the Old Covenant, because Jews were not commanded to do this, but had to maintain their set apart identity.

    • I disagree, Israel was certainly called to be a light to the nations from early on, and the discipleship model had existed in Israel long before Yeshua. Our Messiah simply used a system already in place to spread the good news of the coming of Messiah and the Kingdom of Heaven.

  30. Yes it is. It was so new and disconcerting and in conflict what they understood – they decided to crucify Our Lord Jesus.

    If the idea of progressive revelation is true – then new has evolved over the period and did even shocked some Jewish believers…

    • If the new covenant were so disconcerting, it never would have taken off the ground. Rather it blossomed and filled the Earth because it was such a perfect fulfillment of what was prophesied. Jesus was crucified at the behest of a crooked leadership that was trying to protect its own interests.

  31. shalom. my understanding is that the new covenant is new because the old one is old. Ezekiel 20:25 I also gave them over to statutes that were not good and ordinances by which they could not live. when you buy a shirt on 1-01-2010 and buy today which is new?

    • Please take Ezek.20:25 in context (vv.10-24). Ezek.20:11, And I gave them My statutes, and I made them know My judgments, which if a man does them, he will even live by them. The new covenant is God’s same perfect instructions, but written on the heart, and not on stone.

    • Moses Odikor, it is not reasonable to believe that Ezekiel meant two such entirely opposite things in the same passage. How can “ordinances by which they could not live” and “my judgments, which if a man does them, he will even live by them” possibly refer to the same thing?

  32. With Jesus the old law is fulfilled and ergo has ended.
    Also the old covenant has ended too.
    And with Jesus a new covenant started.
    Basta.
    There is no reason for the people of yesterday to whine about spilled milk…

    • It was Marcion (~144AD) who first dichotomized the Bible into Christianity’s Old-Testament-God-of-judgment/New-Testament-God-of-love, dualist paradigm (he was excommunicated as a heretic, by the way). Your comment continues his tradition, I see. It assumes that “fulfilled” entails “ended”. If a president fulfills the office of the presidency, does it end all future presidencies? Or does “fulfilling all righteousness” end all righteousness? (cf. Matt. 3:15) My dear friend, shift your paradigm; “fulfill” does not mean “bring to an end”.

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      • I know big parts of Marcion – at least in translation. He was very intelligent, not like many of the old church fathers, the reason, why he was “heretic”…
        I agree absolutely not with all his opinions. And: If a presidency has ended, it has ended, a completely new begins.

        • Compare apples to apples: are the laws concerning the office of the president nullified when a president fulfills it? And you didn’t offer an explanation about Matt.3:15; what does “fulfill all righteousness” mean? To end all righteousness? Fulfill doesn’t mean abolish.

  33. How are we to resolve the early portion of Jeremiah’s prophecy with the fact that the latter portion (v34) has clearly not yet come to pass?

    • Do you remember When Yeshua was reading from Isaiah (61:1-2) and he stopped mid sentence because last bit would not be fulfilled in His first ministry? We should not be surprised that a single prophecy should find fulfillment at two different times. We were given the Spirit as a deposit; we are not experts yet. But the day will come when the second part of Jeremiah’s prophecy will be fulfilled and every man will know God. Maybe we’re helping fulfill it by learning and teaching as we are doing here!

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  34. Hi Dr Lizorkin-Eyzenberg
    The sign of the covenant with Abram was circumcision of all males 8 days and above. Is the new covenant circumcision of the heart?

    • Actually, circumcision of the heart is from the Torah itself (Deu 10:16, also cf. Lev.26:41); it was not a new commandment. The Bible never explicitly calls anything “the sign” of the new covenant (though some think it baptism). Maybe a better candidate would be the bread and wine of the Last Supper. It became a prototype when the New Covenant was originally cut, it is a recurring, reminding ritual, and it represents the Author of the New Covenant, what He accomplished and our responsibility to accept Him in purity. Maybe that’s the sign, but we can’t be definite.

  35. We’re such literalists! What does it mean to have God’s Law (Torah) written on our hearts? What can it mean other than its synchronicity with the outpouring of His Spirit on those who believe? When God’s Spirit lives within you, you know His law and will for living.

  36. Who were these other non Jesus following Jews near Damascus that believed the new covenant had come? and what is the reference (CD 8:15-17)?
    thanks,
    Sheldon

    • They were Essenes, likely related to the Qumran community. The reference is to the text called the “Damascus Document”.

  37. ,” until you return to the ground”—.” man could not save himself from this curse. it was only possible by GOD with us.The new covenant is God’s same perfect instructions, but written on the heart, not on stone.this is wonderful Dr. Eli. NEW was done according to GOD’S prophetic timing

  38. Shalom Dr Eli. If the ark of the covenant will be found today, what will be its function? What will be the function of both the 10 words and Aron’s rod?
    Will both be needed given the fact that the laws are now written in our hearts?

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