In Galatians, Paul teaches his disciples, “If you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the Law” (Gal 5:18; cf. Rom 6:14-15; 1 Cor 9:20-21). What does Paul mean by “not under the Law”? The traditional answer is that Paul (Shaul) abandoned Torah for an alternative way of living—not a life of legal observance, but a life under “grace” and “faith.” This supposed shift in Paul’s lifestyle assumes that grace and faith are in opposition to God’s Law, but Paul himself denied such an opposition many times over (e.g., Rom 3:31; 4:16; 7:7-16; 10:5). A closer examination of Gal 5:18 shows that Paul does not disdain the Law (far from it), but rather he qualifies the Law’s scope in light of the Messiah’s arrival. I have to warn you, my explanation of the apostle’s words will take you far from the traditional path of reading Galatians.

Shaul’s notion of not being “under the Law” begins earlier in Galatians when he asks, “Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?” (Gal 3:2-3). Clearly, the Spirit works through faith! Paul adds, “But before faith came, we were protected under the law, being enclosed together to the faith which was later to be revealed. Therefore, the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor.” (Gal 3:23-25).

First, Paul frequently uses the term “faith” (πίστις; pistis) in Galatians as a shorthand for “faith in Messiah,” and the term “promise” (ἐπαγγελία; epangelía) for the promised inheritance given to Abraham (cf. Gen 12:1-3; 15:18-20). The inheritance or promise is something an heir receives once the child matures. According to Paul, his Galatian disciples already received the “Abrahamic promise/inheritance” by the Spirit, without the involvement of Torah (Gal 3:26-29). Jews can receive the same “promise/inheritance of the covenant” through the Spirit in the process of being guided by the Torah.

Second, Shaul compares the custody of a caretaker or tutor (Greek: παιδαγωγός; paidagogós) over a minor to the custody of Torah over Israel. This is not a perfect illustration (because it highlights only one side of Torah), but Paul introduces an idea of “tutor” as an example from the Roman life his audience would understand. In English, a tutor or pedagogue may imply academic instruction, but in Greek or Hebrew, the terms imply practical training in life skills. In Hebrew (מוֹרֶה; moreh) “teacher” or “instructor”, “someone who points to right direction” is related to the word Torah (תּוֹרָה; torah). Greek “law” (νόμος; nomos) is not the best translation for such relationship but translations are rarely perfect or precise. The issue of Torah comes up because Paul addresses his letter to non-Jews who are contemplating circumcision and formal conversion, which would obligate them to live by the Torah’s commandments.

So, keeping this in mind, what does Paul mean by not being “under the Law” or “under a tutor” in his illustration? The answer can be surprisingly straightforward. Mature heirs know how their father wants them to act and do not require the enforcement of rules by a caretaker who already taught them how to live well in society. Galatians are non-Jews, and technically, they were never “under the law” and thus do not require emancipation from it. So applying this scenario to non-Jews is not entirely proper. Paul merely says there are two paths to the inheritance, one through the Spirit and another through Torah which leads one to Christ. (Gal 3:24). But Galatians did not know Torah. They did not even know God before Paul introduced them to Jesus (Gal 4:8; cf. Eph 2:12) so what law could they be under before Messiah?

Indeed, throughout Israel’s history, Torah served as a guide, as a teacher, and custodian who instructs, corrects and even disciplines. Torah preserved Israel as a people living among pagan nations for many generations, allowing them to finally see the days of the Messiah. Now that Messiah has come, those who embrace him are “mature heirs”, they are ready to receive their inheritance/promise. They are guided by the Spirit and thus not “under the tutor”. Yet this does not mean that Israel as a mature heir can now ignore everything she was taught since childhood and now can live however she pleases without any consequences. Torah’s teaching never ceases to be valid and true. Paul’s illustration should not be pressed too far. Illustrations are rarely perfect and simply exist to clarify an idea. In fact, illustrations are not meant to be scrutinized or made into theology. Paul’s original point is that Galatians, who are Gentiles are not supposed get circumcised and quickly acquire a tutor for themselves. Their journey to the “promise” (ἐπαγγελία; epangelía) is different, according to their teacher (Gal 5:18) and that is why they are “not under the law”.



    • I can name several... For most non-Jews, the revelation of God begins with Jesus. Typically non-Jews do not discover the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob on their own or by listening to Jews. Thus what they know of God and faith begins at a completely different point. People embrace a Messiah who was revealed to them through his death, burial, and resurrection. The fact that he was promised through the prophets to Israel long, long ago is realized later at some point. The identity of Messiah, his power, his teachings are revealed in the Gospels plainly. Yeshua is an instant life example. This is not an experience of most Jews when they consider the topic of Messiah. Abraham, Moses, David are examples and maybe later Yeshua.

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    • I agree! Amen.we once was Gentiles but Now we're merged into Jesus Christ through our faith through Jesus Christ only.(Galatians 3:28) there's no Jew nor Gentiles! No slaves nor free No male nor females.we are all one in Christ Jesus.Thank you Jesus.

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  1. Does this also imply that Christians should not tithe as it is not instructed in the new covenant as compared to tge the old one

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    • As tithing is mentioned in Matthew 23:23 and 2 Corrinthians 9:6-10 and others, we should tithe. While we are taught not to view it legalistically but as an outflow from our hearts, only people that do not read the scripture believe that giving of our blessings ended with the Torah.

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    • It is good to do good deeds. Not out of feeling or compulsion but out of love. Good deeds cannot achieve salvation. We do them because of what we believe about the Gospels...about who Jesus is and what He did.
    • re tithes. Wouldn't that be part of the covenant with God no applying to gentiles. While most churches say yes while they preach no many error and ideas of man. if not when did money become acceptable? even the Pharisees were tithing on food
  2. Dear Prof. Pinchas, What is the inheritance or promise? Was Isaac the fulfillment of the promise? What about the seed? What about Jacob, Moses and David? What about the son of David? Isaac is the son (only son in Gen 22) and the Mesiah is also the only son?
    • I think you answered your own question, Fernando. In Galatians Messiah is the seed something that stood beyond the promise to Abraham. Besides the greatness and posterity, God promised Abraham that in him (in his seed) all the families of the earth will be blessed. Those of us who believe in Yeshua connect the dots and see that promise truly fulfilled in Messiah. Redemption, life with God, closeness to God is the inheritance/promise.

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  3. For both Jew and gentile, salvation is by faith in Jesus the Christ. For all, a life pleasing to God is by obedience to His Word in Old and New Covenants.
  4. Professor, I am a little bit confused on this issue, since in the Old Testament there were three aspects of Laws the Jews were observing, those are: Civil Law, moral law and ceremonial law. In what aspect of law the Galatians were not under with?
    • Actually, traditionally Jews do not separate commandments along such lines. This is something Christian theologians came up with. Jewish tradition believes that some basic laws are universal and should be upheld by everyone. They are self-evident such as an idea of one God, the prohibition of idol-worship, murder, theft, sexual immorality and etc.

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  5. "The inheritance or promise" in Gen 12, 13 and 15 are promises. They are "land", descendants and blessings. The "land and blessings" are for all Christians as well as "Jews". Non-Jew Christians are not blood descendants. Please elaborate and explain.
    • Yes, you are right not blood-descendants... But adopted sons can be called sons of promise (in you all the families of the earth will be blessed) are they are heirs according to Paul in Galatians.

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  6. Thank you pinchas , do you think the modern church has westernized the gospels and to some degree to their own detriment made the faith only movement, rejecting torah , far to easy to be saved, thusly creating or in danger off luke warmness Christianity.
    • Yes, Paul, I think the Bible has been watered down quite a bit. Jewish voices and Israel's wisdom have been rejected for many centuries and were replaced with "new and better ideas" It's OK, people are waking up and seeking to restore their faith. Look at how many people come and study with us!
  7. Many protestants overtly use Galatians 3:23ff to create guilt, to guide Christian living and for civil (social) purposes in Gentile societies! I believe "us" & "we" refer only to Israel. The narrative does not address subjective pschyo/emotional responses for anyone. It's purely historical. Any comments? Thank you.
    • I think Galatians is a strong rhetorical letter with very peculiar content and has been misused in a variety of ways by ignoring that context.
  8. Clarified some things. Thank you Prof Shir. I agree with what you have explained and what Paul actually meant. I suspected something similar, but not completely. I will join a class once I am able to afford it.
  9. Prof. Thanks for such a great revelation of Apostle Paul. I believe those who still reject Messiah reject God and those who acknowledges God through Abraham still reject God, Abraham and Messiah. Our believe should be more in Christ so that we can receive the Promises of Abraham by faith.
    • Dear Anton, a bit of wisdom I learned in life, is to think less of where other people are and how wrong they are and to focus more on my own life. I think this is the attitude God wants me to live out. Messiah is hidden to many today just as he was hidden to me at some point in my life. But these things can change, until then God is a righteous judge.

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