The Apostle Shaul Paulos’, who is known today simply as Apostle Paul, assertion that “all Israel will be saved” in Romans 11:26 is sometimes a source of confusion for those studying the New Testament. Many of my students have asked “Who is Israel?” in this verse. “Israel” seems pretty straightforward; but the fact that people question its meaning is evidence of more than a millennium of received tradition that assigns a particular meaning to the identity of “Israel” – namely, a tradition that defines (this new) “Israel” as the “Church.”

In fact, not too long ago, I heard the host of a Christian radio show claim emphatically that modern-day Jews are “not Israel – we, said he, [Christians] are now Israel.” It’s typically assumed that Paul was a Christian, and not a first-century Jewish Christ-follower. This meant the same thing as removing him from Israel and drawing a sharp distinction between “Jews” and “Christians,” with the latter as “Israel” and the former as… well, folks who just wouldn’t get with the right program.

But is this really what this Jewish Christ-centered Pharisee meant in his letters to the nations? Not unless we take Romans 11:26 as a proof-text, removing it from the entirety of chapters 9-11 and indeed from the epistle as a whole. If by “all Israel” he meant “only Christians,” he could not logically call Israel God’s people and claim that God has not, and will never, abandon them (11:1-2). Neither could he logically say “I myself am an Israelite” in that same context, since the Israelites of whom he was speaking in 11:1 are ethnic Israelites, not Gentile “Christians.” Paul cannot mean that he has somehow shifted to become part of some “spiritual Israel” to which ethnic Israel no longer belongs. This is the normal way Paul has been interpreted for many centuries.

In order to understand “all Israel,” we must not divorce Romans 11:26 from its immediate context which is the olive tree metaphor in 11:17-24. Paul tells the Roman Jesus-believers that some branches of the olive tree have been broken/bent (by the way, the Greek text can be translated this way and not “broken off” as is the usual translation).  These are “Israel” who for one reason or another do not see Jesus as the promised Messiah, as Paul already explained in 9:6-7, 30-33 and 11:7-12. Some of the branches, however, that remained unbent/unbroken were the “faithful remnant” of 11:5. The nations, being grafted in amongst these remaining branches, joined with and alongside the remnant of Israel. They do not take Israel’s place. This is where the translation as “broken/bent” versus “broken off” becomes a very important interpretive trajectory.

Paul follows this by saying “the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable” (11:29). He looks to the day when the branches that had been broken/bent would re-join all of the branches: “How much more will their full inclusion mean!” (11:12).

In Ephesians 2, Paul (and I do see this letter as Pauline in spite of some differences in style and vocabulary with his other letters) claims that the nations who are in the Jewish Christ (the only kind of Christ there is) have become part of the Commonwealth of Israel. Just as today, in the modern Commonwealth of Israel there are Jewish and non-Jewish citizens of the same State, so too in Ephesians: Gentiles who join Israel as true sojourners become integrally a part of Israel, but continue to bear witness to the God of Israel; not as Jews but as the nations of the world!

What does the Apostle Paul mean, therefore, by “all Israel?” Quite simply, he literally means the Ancient People of God — those who were first called into covenant relationship with Him. God will show his faithfulness to the Children of Israel by keeping all of his promises. This will establish the very important point that the nations who will worship Israel’s God, together with and alongside the Jews, can also count on the faithfulness of God for themselves, because the God of Israel keeps his promises. Always.



  1. Thank you Dr. Eli. I never thought it was any other way. I read my bible. I was 12 years old when Israel became a nation again. I have never doubted who is the true Israel. I hope as a believer that I may be grafted in or as one of the believing of the Nations. Shalom
  2. I think he talked about the 10 tribes of the north, backsliding Israel, which was given the bill of divorce, Jer.3.8
    Hosea, Yeshua in Mat.15,23
  3. In the previous chapter, Romans 10:12, Apostle Paul wrote " There is no difference between Jew and Gentile - the same Lord is Lord of all- for everyone who calls on the name of the Lord, shall be saved!" St. Paul also wrote to the Galatians chapter 3:28 that in the kingdom of God there is neither Jew or gentile..! Meaning there is ONE body - in Christ - one Israel -ALL Israel, Gentile and Jew who accepted Jesus Christ. Thank you for addressing this very important question.
    • Dear Barendine, thank you so much for your comment. I recommend you to consider this article. Please, see if you can see my gentle correction to the idea submitted above -
  4. I could accept your explanation, except you do not deal with Romans 11:20-23.
    One becomes part of the true Israel by faith, "... they were bent/broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand only through faith.
    Also note in 11:23 "And even those in Israel, if they do not persist in their unbelief, will be grafted in..." Bent branches don't have to be grafted in again. So we see, it is based on faith. If all Israel is saved, it is a great mystery as Paul says in 11:33-35 "O the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgements and how incsrutable his ways!...
  5. This is great. God always keeps his promises. If Jesus says, if you forgive others their sins, you will be forgiven. If not, you are not forgiven. Is that a promise? And if he says this same thing in all four Gospels, do we not have one promise to deal with? And because we have not dealt with it, where are we? Do we need forty more years of wilderness? Not only is it a promise above, but a Covenant. Is that fair? Are we ashamed of his testimony?
  6. All that aside, I must thank you for providing me with material that is significantly more Christian than what I get from the ones that I live around. If I ask hard questions it's because I want to learn more. And I think that you guys are doing a great service for me. Thanks again.


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