An Excerpt from Ancient Jewish Literature – Damascus Document, Col 15 or 4Q266 (Early First Century CE)

[He will not sw]ear by Aleph and Lamed (EL = God) nor by Aleph and Daleth (Adonai = The Lord), but by the oath of the youths, by the curses of the covenant. [Blank] Neither should one mention the law of Moses, for in it is the full enunciation of the name. [Blank] And if he swears and transgresses, he profanes the name. [Blank] If the judges adju[re] (someone) by the curses of the covenant. [Blank] If he transgresses, he will be guilty and will have to confess and make amends, and (then) he shall not be liable for sin [and] die. [Blank] Those who enter the covenant, for all Israel for an eternal law, must impose upon their sons who have reached (the age) to go over to the enrolled, the oath of the covenant. [Blank] And such is the regulation, throughout all the age of wickedness, for whoever reverts from his path of corruption.

On the day when he talks to the Inspector of the Many, they shall enroll him with the oath of the covenant which Moses established with Israel, the covenant to rev[ert to] the law of Moses with the whole heart and [with] the who[le] soul, to what is found (therein) to do during the com[plete] period of his app[roach]. But no-one should make him know the precepts before he stands in front of the Inspector: when he stands he should be persuaded by him when he tests him. But when he has imposed upon himself to return to the law of Moses with all his heart and all his soul they will [exact re]venge from him if he should become unfaithful. [Blank] All that has been revealed of the law for the multitude of the camp—if he inadvertently fails, the Inspector should tea[ch h]im and give orders concerning him, and he should le[arn] for a full year. And in accordance with (his) knowledge «he will approach. And no-one» who is stupid or deranged «should enter»; and anyone feeble[-minded and insane,] those with eyes too weak t[o see,] the lame [or] one who stumbles, o[r a deaf person,] or an un[der-a]ge boy, none of these should one allow to enter [the congregation, since the holy angels… (4Q266 Martı́nez Translation)



  1. Some where I am perfected, and believe God (whom I acknowledge as YeHoVaH) laid out a template and marker in Yeshua. By this Grace and perfection I may stand before him boldly, though to some at this present juncture, it may seem a little feeble and abject.
  2. I believe the age of wickedness began in the Garden of Eden when Eve and Adam first sinned and the world has been and still is in the age of wickedness. That will not end until the Lord Jesus Christ returns and sets up His Reign over the whole earth.
  3. Your articles bring so many things to light. Thanks for All of the hard work from All of the teaching partners who have gathered to bring us Truth ! Blessings to all, and to Jerusalem and All Israel !
  4. What is the difference between"YHWH"and Yehova Elohim?
    What is the real name of God? Is JEDP theory relevant when we study on New testament?
    • I personally do not put much stock into JEDP theory. I get it, but there are other ways to explain what we see with regards to the use of God's name versus titles. God has many names. The one everyone is focused on is the covenant name YHVH, which he revealed to Moses. But to limit God to one name is to make him like us, limited. An infinite being is just that, but we humans want to confine God to one word that defines him.
    • K.S. Simon,

      There’s an article, published by Associates for Biblical Research (, ‘Documentary Hypothesis’, stating why you should no longer support utilizing the documentary hypothesis for understanding the Bible (the word ‘BIBLE’ is a false acronym which stands for ‘Basic-Instructions-Before-Leaving-Earth: you’re not leaving Earth to go fly/float around in Space-as-the-Greeks-who-stole-this-idea-from-the-Ancient-Egyptians-believed-and-incorporated-into-Jewish-Scriptures).
  5. He is the beginning and the end, the alpha and omega, Emmanuel, the good shepherd, the light of nation, Son of God, the promised Messiah, the desired of all nations, the redeemer, the savior,
    the just, merciful, love, judge, King of the Kings, Lord of lords I am
  6. I was informed that ‘Adonai’ was used by the Greeks when addressing Yahweh (or Yah). This is nothing new to the Greeks. Remember the Greeks labeled Sha’ul & Bar-Nabba as Hermes & Zeus (Gevurot/Acts 14:12). Greeks worshipped their idol ‘Adonis’ (mortal lover of the Greek idol ‘Aphrodite’). Hence, they-applied-this-name-to-Yahweh.
  7. I also want to mention that we know the Ancient Jews did not go around stating: ‘ Lord Jesus’ or ‘My Lord’ (to Yahweh or anyone who were rulers and/or kings). This is a classic example of the KJV,NIV,ESV,etc being utilized to translate for and/or identify with their(Greeks/Latins) people at-the-expense-of-the-original-Hebraic-New-Testament.
  8. The discussion on this topic has covered a lot of ground. However, no one has turned to the New Testament to see what Jesus, the Son of God had to say. His words are recorded in Matthew 5:34-37 where he tells us not to swear by anything but to let your yes be yes and your no be no.
    The instructions of Jesus take precedence over things written previously as He fulfilled the Law and the prophets.
    • Different Jewish groups had different notions about this. Some think this particular teaching of Jesus (not swearing) was a polemic with the Qumran Jews.


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