Virtually all texts from the ancient Near East present modern readers with difficulty. Even in translation, the tone and style of ancient Near Eastern literature differs from contemporary works. The Hebrew Psalter, and other poetic portions of Scripture, is no exception to that rule. Typically, poetry is richer in its language than narrative prose, since poetry emphasizes two essential characteristics: parallelism and meter. While much has been written on the aspects of understanding Hebrew poetry according to these characteristics, scholars today are divided on their exact definitions. To make matters even more frustrating, no discussions from antiquity about poetic theory exist.

Even our understanding of some poetic forms and poetic subdivisions are sometimes imprecise. This concept extends to rare words, which are often misunderstood in psalmic superscriptions and spattered throughout the Hebrew Psalter. For example, Psalm 32 is labeled as a maskil (משׂכיל) and Psalm 16 a miktam (מכתם); but we don’t fully understand these terms. The mysterious Selah (סלה) has also presented issues and piqued the interest of scholars for the last one hundred years.

At this moment in scholarship, the significance of such terms and their respective contribution to an understanding of Hebrew poetry are lost to the mists of antiquity. However, despite a lack of full knowledge regarding the meaning and use of Hebrew poetic aspects, we can still rely on other sources from the ancient Near East to help us understand the original meaning of these highly artistic poems. Texts from the ancient city of Ugarit are a good example. Only about forty ancient cuneiform tablets survive, but they contain poetic traditions dating much further back than their time of writing (c. 14th/13th BCE). The study and reconstruction of parallel structures in the cuneiform tablets have been compared with texts from the Hebrew Bible, while drawing on help from Phoenician, Aramaic, Akkadian, and Arabic texts. With common repetition and parallelistic structures that pervade these compositions, we are able to understand poetic structure in the Hebrew Bible a little more clearly.



  1. Thank you so much Dr.Ashley E. Kyon.
    I would like to request you please explain me some hard things of the Bible 🙏
  2. Thank you for such an interesting article. I wish I could find more time to study all these ancient languages but at least I can read and speak Hebrew. I also teach Hebrew in Polish on my channel which is called, in Polish, Hebrajski nie tylko biblijny - Not only biblical Hebrew. :-) I can also understand a little ancient Greek.
  3. I am currently studying Hebrew Poetry as part of the Israel Institute of Biblical studies. Hebrew Poetry is the most beautiful use of the language and carries so many nuances and clever methods of imparting understanding that i find myself really engaged in the desire to become skilled in reading and meditating on the word of God. It is also extremely challenging: vocabulary skills are stretched to their limit and the extensive use of lexical tools and reference books is absolutely essential. I have completed three semesters studying Hebrew and this my fourth; without a doubt this is the most exciting period of my studies so far encountered, because of the beauty and clever use of the language in Biblical poetry.
  4. Dr. Lyon, is there somewhere in the IBC catalog that the words maskil, miktam and Selah are investigated in more depth?
    • Richard, there is an article about Selah on the IBC magazine website. I also have a book out called, Reassessing Selah that goes into great depth. It’s available through College and Clayton Press.


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